Between 1999 and 2008, Australia became more restrictive towards low-skilled migrants, while the requirements on high-skilled migration remained stable.
France’s restrictiveness increased relatively more for low-skilled migrants than for high-skilled migrants.
Between 1999 and 2008, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom became less restrictive towards high-skilled migrants.
Between 1999 and 2008, Luxembourg became slightly less restrictive towards high- and low-skilled migrants.
Switzerland is the only country where, by 2008, low-skilled and high-skilled migrants experience the same (high) level of policy restrictiveness.
United States policies stayed stable between 1999 and 2008, and featured the biggest discrepancy between the treatment of high- and low-skilled workers.